Dr. Nishtheshvar K.
M.D.(Ayurved); Ph.D; C.F.N; D.A.F.E; Sanskrit Bhasha Kovida; Sanskrit Vichakshana
- Etymology of the word Veerya
- Lakshan`a of Veerya (characteristics of Veerya) &
Svaroopa Nirdhaaran`a (Determination of character of Veerya)
- Analysis of Veerya Concept
- Sankhyaa (number of Veerya)
- Paancha Bhautikatva of Veerya
- Functions of Veerya
- Determination of Veerya (Veerya Upalabdhi)
- Veerya Nirdhaaran`a Saamaanya Siddhaanta & Apavaada
(General Rules with exceptions about Veerya)
- Reasons to consider Veerya as an important factor among the principles of Drug action (Veerya Praadhaanya Hetu):
- Research on Veerya
In the context of drug action, the word Veerya as envisaged in Ayurvedicclassics by the ancient Aachaarya_s connotes different meanings in different contexts and ultimately projects into the potential factor of any drug by virtue of which it performs certain actions in the body. This comprehensive term is employed to explain lesser or greater potential factors, in the drug in relation to different processes and procedures to achieve the desired effect in the body.
The Ayurvedicprinciples of drug action have been described in the form of Rasa, Gun`a, Veerya, Vipaaka and Prabhaava. If these are the principles through which the drug operates, the word Veerya, then, should also be used for actions due to Rasa, Vipaaka, Gun`a and Prabhaava. As Prabhaava could not be rationally and practically proved, it was put into the category of empirical treatment and as the other four could be rationally and practically demonstrated, they were put in another group. Right in the beginning Veerya was divided into two groups; Chintya or calculable Veerya and Achintya or non-calculable from available information. Chintya Veerya indicates Veerya in general and Achintya Veerya indicates Prabhaava.
- Etymology of the word Veerya
According to the various Sanskrit dictionaries and (Kos`ha_s) it is apparent that the word Veerya is derived from the grammar root Veer or Vri meaning Vikranti or specific power to express vigoretc.
The word Veerya is used simply for physical capacity of a human being and references are available from Manusmruti, Veda_s, and Bhaagavata Puraanam in the support of this idea.
According to Vedic literature and the commentary of Saayan`a there on, Veerya means, the special capacity (Saamarthya) not only necessary for physical and mental activity, but also that which is necessary for worldly capacity to possess different kinds of wealth, like cattle, progeny, wealth, (Pashu, Puthra, Dhana etc) has been meant by it. The S`habdakalpadruma has quoted in support of it.
Amarakos`ha, Nayananandaand Ramanathaall these authorities have described the meaning of Veerya as Utsaaha. The ordinary Utsaaha is not known as Veerya the required amount of vitality is produced by Veerya. In the ancient Sanskrit literature the meaning of word Veerya is ascribed to Shukra Dhaatu as well as for male genital organ.
In the Ayurvedicliterature the Veerya is used for the S`hakti or energy through which drug can act in the body. Intactness of Veerya in different pharmaceutical preparations was described by Naaraayan`adaasa in his Paribhaasha as follows In Kalka and Kashaaya the Veerya remains intact up to one Yaama (3hours), in Choorn`a for 3 Paksha (45 days), In Ghrita and Modakas along with Gud`a for six months, in Guggulu preparation for 3 months, Siddharasa and Bhasma for 3 years, and medicated oils for a considerable long time, the Veerya respectively remains intact.
- Lakshan`a of Veerya(characteristics of Veerya) and Svaroopa Nirdhaaran`a (Determination of character of
Veerya- According to Charaka, the power, which performs work or action, is Veerya. He said that there is no action without Veerya. All actions take place only because of Veerya. The term Veerya means power, potency and efficacy. It also conveys the meaning meaningless and valor. Prof. Dvarkanathopines the term Veerya conveys the idea of energy. The energy of a body is its capacity for doing work and the measure of energy is work. Energy may be potential or kinetic. Described in terms of Veerya, the former (potential energy) is S`heeta and the latter (kinetic energy) is Ushn`a. The chemical energy locked up in the food substances / drugs represents S`heeta Veerya. Substances (food or drug) from which energy is readily released in Paaka karma (Vipaaka) under the influenceor the action of Kaayaagni (or bio-chemical reactions) involving oxidation, which in part manifests as heat, are Ushn`a in Veerya.
Discussing the number of Veerya_s Charaka has quoted the contemporary views, which enumerate Asht`avidha and Dvividha Veerya concepts and at the same time he did not mention his own opinion. Unlike Charaka, Sus`hruta firmly opines that Veerya, Veerya in general for Rasa, Gun`a & Prabhaava. So this Vaada was named as S`hakti Veerya Vaada or the general Veerya concept or Bahuvidha Veerya Vaada.
- Paribhaashika Veerya Vaada:
Sus`hruta has denoted Veerya as the generator of a drug action. Aachaarya Sus`hruta put fourth the Dvividha Veerya Vaada i.e. Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya_s which represents Agni (heat) and soma (cold) of the universe. He has also quoted contemporary Asht`a Vidha Veerya Vaada which considers 8 gun`a as out of 20 gun`a_s Veerya. But in Vis`hada, Pichchhila, were mentioned in place of Guru and Laghu. The eight Gun`a_s are – Snigdha, Rooksha, Vis`hada, Pichchhila, S`heeta, Ushn`a, Mridu and Teekshn`a. He has also stated the Dvividha Veerya Vaada known as Ushn`a and S`heeta.
D`ahlan`a commenting on Sus`hruta`s verses stated Achintya and Chintya Veerya_s. The former also denoted as Prabhaava.
Vaagbhat`a followed the Charakian school of thought and also Sushrutas observations. But regarding Asht`a Vidha Veerya Guru–Laghu was mentioned instead of Vis`hada and Pichchhila.
Hemaadri has made a reference to the view that Veerya_sare many and observed that though Veerya has been described as two types; it can still be as many as there are actions to be performed. In this view, all actions regardless of Gun`a_s, are due to Veerya and, therefore, there can be as many Veerya_sas there are actions. The other significant clarification offered by Hemaadri, which has a direct bearing on the subject now under study, is that which evokes taste perception is Rasa and all the rest are Gun`a_s. Particular or distinct Vis`hisht`a Rasa or taste that occurs, as the result of Kaayaagnipaaka is Vipaaka and the resultant Guna at this stage is Veerya.
Arun`adatta has stated that Gun`a_s are only Veerya_sbut not Rasa_sas the latter cannot withstand the influence of Kaayaagnipaaka and undergoes changes.
- Karma Veerya Vaada:
Bhadanta Naagaarjuna has envisaged the Karma Veerya Vaada by furnishing a definition for Veerya as Karmalakshan`am Veeryam. Gun`a Veerya Vaada was subjected to severe criticism by Aachaarya Naagaarjuna. He has described certain Veerya such as Chhardaneeya Veerya, Anulomana Veerya etc. Nimi has mentioned 15 types of Veerya_ssuch as Urdhvabhaagahara Veerya, Adhobhaagahara Veerya etc.
- Dravya Veerya Vaada:
ShivadasaSen+ has observed Veerya is a special power. The uniqueness of Veerya has been stressed by him as he observes S`hakti is Veerya. It alone is capable of performing powerful actions. These actions do not suffer from any limitations due to non-attachmentof Veerya_sto Rasa_s. Veerya is intimately correlated to gun`a_s viz., S`heeta etc. Since Veerya inheres inseparably in Dravya_s, it is considered to be complementary to Rasa_s. ShivadasaSenpropounded a different type of definition of Veerya as follows It is not the quality of a substance, are two only i.e. Ushn`a and S`heeta. He also quotes the contemporary view of Asht`avidha Veerya Vaada.
Vaagbhat`a truly followed Charaka and quoted the contemporary views of Ashtavidha Veerya and Dvividha Veerya Vaada. A critical appraisal of Brihatrayee indicates that Substrata alone accepted the Dvividha Veerya concepts while Charaka simply made a mention about these concepts without quoting his agreement to them. Vaagbhat`a after quoting the concept of Asht`a Veerya_sand Charakas definition of Veerya substantiated Guna Veerya Vaada i.e., Asht`avidha Veerya and Dvividha Veerya_s.
Table I the reasons for considering 8 Gun`a_s as Veerya_s:
|Samagra Gun`a Saarataa||8 Gun`a_s remain constant and cant be changed during Kaayaagnipaaka|
|Shaktyutkarshata||Are extremely potent in their actions|
|Vyavahaara Mukhyatva||Accorded priority of consideration|
|Bahulyataa||Much abundant in Dravya|
- Analysis of Veerya Concept
Charaka defines the term Veerya as the power that performs work. He further observes that all actions take place only because of Veerya and there is no action, which is not due to Veerya. Chakrapaan`i Datta while emphasizing the view that Gun`a_s are only modes of S`hakti observes that the term Veerya is meant for Rasa, Gun`a, Vipaaka or Prabhaava of a Dravya. Dalhan`a also opines Veerya as S`hakti whether it is of two or eight kinds. ShivadasaSenobserves that Veerya is a special power. Aachaarya Yadavjiinterprets Veerya as active principle of the drug. Prof. P.V.Sharmadiffering with Yadavji`sconcept argues that active principle is also a Dravya and Veerya being a Gun`a cannot be equated with active principle. Prof. C.Dvarakanathaequating Veerya with energy interprets Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya_s as kinetic and potential energies.
- Samkhyaa (Number of Veerya)
Different concepts of Veerya were described in two different texts. Mainly 3 concepts were mentioned namely
- Gun`a Veerya Vaada
- S`hakti Veerya Vaada
- Paribhaashika Veerya Vaada consisting of Dvividhaand Asht`a Vidha Veerya Vaada
- Karma Veerya Vaada
- Dravya Veerya Vaada
Let us consider these conceptsone by one with their implications.
- Gun`a Veerya Vaada:
- S`hakti Veerya Vaada:
Charakian system has delineated Veerya as S`haktiand defined it in its own verses as Yena Kurvanti Tat Veeryam. Chakrapaan`i. Chakraapan`i Datta has implied the term fraction of a substance itself, capable of performing a special action, and also derived from the very important part of the Paanchabhautika structure of the Dravya itself. He has also mentioned Kritrima and Sahaja Veerya_s. Aachaarya Yadavji supporting the concept of the active principle as Veerya indirectly prefers Dravya Veerya Vaada.
To sum up and summarize, the fundamental principle of drug action Veerya has been dealt in different aspects such as S`hakti, Utkrisht`agun`a_s and Karma_s.
Table II Classification of Veerya_s
|Shivaadasan`s (2nd classification)||Gun`a Veerya Vaada||Hemaadri||Nimis (15)|
|S`hakti Veerya Vaada||Paaribhaashika Veerya Vaada|
|1.i. Chintyaii. Achintya(D`ahlan`a) 2.i. Sahajaii.Kritrima||BahuVidha (Chak rapaan`i postulates this theory||MriduTeekshn`aGuruLaghuSnighaRookshaUshn`aS`heetaila||MriduTeekshn`aPichchilaVishadaSnigdhaRookshaUshn`aS`heetaila||MriduTeekshn`aGuruLaghuSnigdhaRookshaUshn`aS`heeta||BahuVeeeryaVaada||Adhobhaagahara Urdhva Bhaagahara UbhayatoBhaagaharaSamgraahikaSams`hamanaDeepanaJeevaniyaPraan`aghnaMaadanaS`heetikaran`aS`hothakaraS`hothaghnaPaachanaDhaaran`aRopan`a|
- Paancha Bhautikatva of Veerya
Aahaara (Diet) and Aushadha (medicine) substances contain Panchamahaabhoota_s. Aachaarya_s have enumerated the various Paanchabhautic combinations for the formation of the principles of a drug action.
Sus`hruta mentioned about the composition of Panchabhoota_s of different Veerya as follows:
- Teekshn`a and Ushn`a – Agnibhoota
- Guru and S`heeta – Jala Bhoota
- Snigdha – Jala Bhoota
- Mridu – Jala and Akasa Bhootas
- Rooksha – Vayu Bhoota
- Laghu – Agni, Aakaas`ha and Vaayu Bhoota_s
- Functions of Veerya
Table III Various effects and functions of eight Veerya_s
|S.No||Veerya||Effect on Doshas||Systemic effects|
|1||Ushn`a||Vaatahara, Kaphahara, and Pittavardhaka||Deepana, Paachana, Daahajanana, Murchhana, Svedana, Vamana, Virechana, Vilayana, Bhrama, Trushn`aajanana, Aas`hupaaka, Avrushya|
|2||S`heeta||Pittahara Vaatakapha Vardhaka||Prahlaadana, Vishyandana, Sthirikaran`a, Prasaadana, Kledana, Jeevaniya, Sthambhana,Raktaprasaadana, Balyam|
|3||Snigdha||Vaatahara, Kaphavardhaka||Snehana, Briuhan`a, Santarpan`a, Vaajikaran`a, Vayasthaapana|
|4||Rooksha||Vaatavardhaka, Kapha Pittahara||Samgrahan`a, Peed`ana, Virookshan`a, Ropan`a|
|5||Guru||Kaphavardhaka Vaatahara||Upalepana, Bruhan`a, Balya|
|6||Laghu||Kaphahara Vaatavardhaka||Lekhana, Langhana, Dhaatu Kshaya|
|7||Mridu||Pittahara||Raktaprasaadana, Mamsa Prasaadana|
|8||Teeksn`a||Kaphahara||Samgraahi, Aachushan`a, Avadaaran`a, Sraavan`a|
|9||Vis`hada||Kaphahara||Kledachooshana, Virookshan`a, Uparohan`a|
|10||Pichchila||Kaphavardhaka||Upalepana, Puran`a, Bruhan`a, Samsleshara, Vaajikaran`a|
- Determination of Veerya (Veerya Upalabdhi)
The criteria of identification or determination of the principles of drug action namely Rasa, Vipaaka and Veerya are furnished by Agnives`ha. Rasa (taste) of the Dravya_s (Drug/diet) can be ascertained immediately after their contact with the tongue (Nipaata), their Vipaaka by the final action (Nisht`a Karma) and Veerya during theirassociation with the body (Adhivaasa) or immediately after their contact with the body (Nipaata).
Rasa or taste is known by direct perception and Vipaaka can only be inferred from its action on Dosha–Dhatu–Mala–Agni and Srotas. As regards Veerya it may sometimes be inferred from its action, e.g. S`heeta Veerya of Saindhava Lavan`a or Ushn`a Veerya of Anupamaamsa (meat of marshy animals) can be inferred from their action on the body. In certain Dravya_s the Veerya) potency) can also be known by direct perception e.g. knowledge of the Teekshn`a Veerya of Raajika is based on olfactory perception.
Pichchila (slimness), Vis`hada (non-slimness), Snigdha (unctuousness) and Rooksha(unctuousness) can be known by direct visual perception. Teekshn`a Veerya of Maricha can be determined immediately after its contact with the tongue (Nipaata). They can also be ascertained while it is in the process of digestion and metabolism (Adhivaasa). Chakrapaan`iinterprets Adhivaasa as S`hareeranivaasa and spectrum of action of Veerya lies between Nipaata(Rasa) and Karman isht`a (Vipaaka).
Substrata quotes the following criteria for identification of different Veerya_s.
Mridu, S`heeta – Sparshagraahya
Pichchila, Vis`hada – Chakshu + Sparsha Graahya
Snigdha, Rooksha, Teekshn`a – Mukhaduhkhotpaadana
Determination of Veerya / Gun`a by Nisht`a Karma, Nipaata& Adhivaasa
While discussing the Pharmaco-dynamics of drugs it is clearly mentioned by Charaka that the factor responsible for the manifestation of action / effect is known as Veerya (Ena Kurvanti Tat Veeryam). Sus`hruta also expresses the same conceptmentioning that the principle by which drug acts is Veerya (Su.41). Drugs act by virtue of their own nature (Dravya Prabhaava) or by virtue of qualities (Guna Prabhaava) or both. Either Dravya Prabhaava or Guna Prabhaava responsible for drug action can be called as Veerya. The term Gun`a includes Rasa–Gun`a Veerya Vipaaka and Prabhaava. Basing on this statement of Charaka, one can classify the conceptof Veerya as Dravya Veerya Vaada and Gun`a Veerya Vaada. Dravya Prabhaava means the nature of Dravya but it should not be interpreted as Prabhaava, which is included under Pancha Rasaadigun`a_s i.e. Rasa – Gun`a Veerya Vipaaka and Prabhaava.
A careful and critical appraisal of the actions attributed to Rasa and Vipaaka indicates that all the their actions are explained in terms of their Gun`a_s. So it may be interpreted that any action is preferred by the most potent Gun`a (Uttkrusht`ha Sampanna Gun`a), which otherwise renamed as Veerya. Hence the determination of Gun`a is done by
Nipaata contact at the tongue level (the term Rasa is employed
For Gun`a) or contact with the body
Nisht`akarma – Final action (3the terms Vipaaka is given)
Adhivaasa – Reside in the body (the term Veerya is given)
The ingested drug starts its action immediately (initial action of Gun`a / Veerya) and commences its journey to reach Adhisht`haana (site of action), which is the seat of the final action (Vipaaka). The different phases, which contribute to the final, action takes place between Nipaataand Nisht`apaaka stage. Transforming Gun`a_s (Veerya) of the Dravya, which are in transit (Gun`a / Veerya) also carry out certain actions before their final synthesis to perform Nisht`a Karma. According to Hemaadri the principle that evokes taste perception is Rasa and all the rest are Gun`a_s; Vis`hisht`a Rasa (particular or distinct taste), which occurs as the result of Kaayaagnipaaka, is Vipaaka. The Gun`a, which generates at the end of Paaka is Veerya. It can be interpreted in a different way i.e. Rasanagraahya Gun`a is Rasa, Vis`hisht`a Gun`a transformed during Kaayaagnipaaka is Vipaaka and the finally synthesized Guna at the end of the Vipaaka, is Veerya. Based on this it can be concluded that the Gun`a_s / Veerya of a Dravya can be ascertained by Nipaata, Adhivaasa and Nisht`a Karma.
To sum up the primary physical qualities such as Guru, Laghu, Ushn`a, S`heetaetc. are co inherent in the Bhoota_s i.e. Pruthvi, Aapa, Tejas, Vaayu and Aakaas`ha on which the constitution of Rasa_s depend. In other words, the characteristic taste (Rasa) of substances is correlated to the Gun`a_s (primary physical qualities) of the Bhoota_s, which collocate in their formation.
The criterion for the assessment of Rasa viz. Nipaatashould be considered as the index of Gun`a / quality of the drug. The primary physical qualities of the substances are subjected to Physico-chemical reactions or Paaka_s for further synthesis and further potentiation. The potentiated/ charged Gun`a_s conferred with Veerya status exercise (Nisht`a Karma) their final action to produce therapeutic effect (Phalam). Barring Rasa, the remaining principles of drug action are assessed by inference. Incase of substances having Avyakta Rasa (unknown taste) the interrelated principles of drug action can be assessed by Anumaanapramaan`a (inference) only. Hence the objective assessment of Rasapanchaka is not absolutely possible but by precise evaluation of the pharmacological action (Karma), the principles of drug action can be inferred in a most rational way.
Veerya Nirdhaaran`a Saamaanya Siddhaanta & Apavaada (General Rules with exceptions about Veerya)
The general rule is that, a substance that is, Madhura in Rasa (sweet in taste) and Madhura in Vipaaka is S`heeta in Veerya. The substance, which is Amla in Rasa and Vipaaka is Ushna in Veerya. Similarly that which is Kat`u in Rasa and Vipaaka is Ushn`a in Veerya. In this category usually by assessing Rasa of a Dravya one can conclude the Veerya of that particular Dravya. It is also observed that in exceptional cases Veerya may not be in accordance with Rasa. In the following tables the general rule and the exception to the general concept with examples are furnished.
Table IV Saamaanya Siddhaanta of Veerya
|Rasa Saamaanya Siddhanta||Veerya and Vipaaka|
|Madhura Rasa||S`heeta Veerya, Madhura Vipaaka|
|Amla Rasa||Ushn`a Veerya, Amla, Vipaaka|
|Kat`u Rasa||Ushn`a Veerya, Kat`u, Vipaaka|
Table V Charaka quoted following exceptions to Saamanya Siddhanta
|Maha Panchamoola||Kashaaya, Tikta||Ushn`a|
From the above tables it is clear that the Dravya_s, which follow the general rule, are identified as Samaanapratyayaarabdha and the substances, which differ from the rule, are categorized as Vichitrapratyayaarbdha Dravya_s.
Reasons to consider Veerya as the important factor among the principles of Drug action (Veerya Praadhaanya Hetu:
Among the Rasapanchaka, Veerya is considered as the most important factor in the process of drug action. Reasons substantiating the importance of Veerya furnished by Sus`hruta are given below.
Aushadhakarma Kaaraka: or actions of drugs brought about by their potency. The actions namely S`hodhana, S`hamana, Graahi, Agnideepana, Peed`ana, Lekhana, Brimhan`a, Rasaayana, Vaajeekaran`a, S`hvayathukara, Vilayana, Dahana, Dhaaran`a, Praan`aghna, Vishapras`hamana etc are produced by Veerya only. Veerya is of two type i.e. Ushn`aand S`heeta in accordance with the nature of the universe which is formed of Agni (heat) and Soma (cold). Some consider Veerya to be of eight types i.e. S`heeta–Ushn`a, Snigdha–Rooksha, Vis`hada–Pichchhila and Mridu–Teekshn`a.
Veerya suppresses the action of Rasa and performs its own function owing to its overpowering property. Examples are:
- Brihat Panchamoola through Tikta Rasaalleviate Vaata due to their Ushn`a Veerya.
- Kulaththa (Kashaaya Rasa) and Palaand`u (Kat`u Rasa) also alleviate Vaata due to their Snigdha Veerya.
- Ikshu through Madhura Rasa increase Vaata due to S`heeta Veerya.
- Pippalee (Kat`u Rasa) alleviates Pitta due to its Mridu–S`heeta Veerya.
- Aamalakee (Amla Rasa) and Saindhava Lavan`a(Lavan`a Rasa) alleviate Pitta due to their MriduS`heeta Veerya.
- Kaakamaachee (Tikta Rasa) Matsya (Madhura) increase Pitta due to their Ushn`a Veerya.
- Moolaka (Kat`u) increases Kapha due to its Snigdha Veerya.
- Kapiththa (Amla Rasa) and Madhu (Madhura) alleviate Kapha due to their Rooksha Veerya.
If Vaata alleviating Rasa_s(Madhura–Amla–Lavan`a) possess Rooksha–Laghu–S`heeta Gun`a_s as they do not pacify Vaata.
If Pitta alleviating Rasa_s(Kashaaya–Tikta–Madhura) possess Teeksn`a–Ushn`a Laghu Gun`a_s, they do not pacify Pitta.
If the Kapha alleviating Rasa_s(Kat`u–Tikta–Kashaaya) possesses Snigdha–Guru–S`heeta Gun`a_s they are not capable of pacifying Kapha. Hence it can be concluded that Veerya is the most important principle among the principles of drug action.
Aagama: Aachaarya_s (Aapta_s) consider Veerya as the most superior principle of drug action (Rasa Vaishesha)
Research on Veerya:
- Action of Ushn`a & S`heeta Veerya drugs on skeletal muscle
A total 24 drugs of 12 each belonging to Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya_srespectively have been selected at random. Their aqueous extracts (10% water infusion) were tested for their activity against contractions of frog skeletal muscle (Frog Rectus Abdominis) by using Burn model (1954)
Two similar dose response curves with Acetylecholine were taken (1r, 2r doses) before and after injecting 1 ml 10% solution of the trial drug
However, statistical analysis showed insignificant inhibition of both the Veerya_s. Therefore the skeletal muscle experiment does not reveal any specificity about the nature of Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya drugs (Nishteswar K. et.al)
- Effect of Ushn`a & S`heeta Veerya drugs on frog heart muscle
The aqueous extracts if 16 Ushn`a and 16 S`heeta Veerya drugs were screened on 32 healthy frog hearts. Conventional method for this experiment was followed as suggested by Burn (1952). The effect of Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya drugs in different doses (0.2 ml and 0.4 ml) was assessed on the basis of heart rate (Chronotropic activity) and amplitude (Inotropic) activity of isolated frog heart during and after perfusion).
S`heeta Veerya group has shown significant decrease of amplitude (P<0.05) at the dose of 0.4 ml while Ushna Veerya drugs have significant depressant action at 0.2 ml and 0.4 ml doses (P<0.01)
It is evident that more depressant effect on amplitude was exercised by Ushn`a Veerya group in comparison, with S`heeta Veerya group. Both S`heeta and Ushn`a Veerya, drugs have shown insignificant decrease of heart rate. Hence the action of Ushn`a and S`heeta Veerya drugs cannot be associated with positive and negative Chronotropicand Ionotropiceffect since both the groups have not shown a specific action on frog heart rate and amplitude (NishteswarK.et.al.)
- Effect of S`heetaand Ushna Veerya drugs on B.M.R.
Two S`heeta Veerya drugs namely Yasht`imadhu and S`hataavaree, and two Ushn`a Veerya drugs namely Chitraka and Jaatiphala have been taken for this study. In healthy volunteers initially B.M.R. was recorded with Mc. Kission Metaboler. Then the drug was administrated three times for only one day (Chitraka and Jatiphala 2 gm each and Yashtimadhu and Shatavari 5 gm each)
A significant increase (P<0.05) has been observed with Yasht`i, while increase in B.M.R with S`hataavaree is not very significant. The action of Ushn`a Veerya drugs is quite opposite i.e. they bring about a decrease in B.M.R. after administration. Both Chitraka and Jaatiphala have shown a very significant action. (P<0.05)
Therefore S`heetaand Ushn`a Veerya_s, which represents the Saumyatva and Agneyatva of a drug or food, may be responsible for synthesizing or metabolizing the Dhaatu_s due to their Santarpan`a or Apatarpan`a actions (NishteswarK. et. Al.)
- Study of Veerya Vis–VispH value of Drugs
Total 25 Ushn`a and 25 S`heeta Veerya drugs have been screened for pH value in cold water and hot water with pH water. 10gms of each drug was soaked in 100 ml of distilled water and kept for one hour. After one hour the pH of the sample was tested. Then the sample was kept on water bath for 30 minutes and again pH was recorded.
In the end all the screened drugs have shown acidic reaction. It is evident from the present study that Ushna and S`heeta Veerya drugs do not exhibit specific difference in pH values (NishtheshvarK and DhayaniS.C)
The above experiments carried out for evaluating Veerya have not communicated the specific nature of Veerya. invitrostudies designed with frogs heart and skeletal muscle can be categorized as Nipaatastudy of Veerya, which also did not give any lead. Effects of Veerya on B.M.R in human volunteers, which fall under Adhivaasa category, have shown significant response. In view of the Agni and Soma concepts, which are interpreted as acidic and alkaline nature of substance, pH value was assessed and this experiment also failed to show any specificity regarding Veerya. Animal studies provide analogies and serve as useful models only to evaluate different actions (Karma) but not the principles of drug action. It is rightly said that a cat or a rat cannot act as an ideal model for man. Clinical pharmacology (Dravyagun`a) which involves the study of various aspects of drug action and metabolism in humans, both in health and in disease and which is also a part of medicine (Kaayachikitsaa) should be preferred for evaluating Ayurvedicprinciples of drug action. While evaluating these principles one should follow unbiased and uncompromising adherence to the S`haastrika descriptions.
Dr. Nishtheshvar K.
Asst. Professor – Vijayawada.PREVIOUSUtility of Naama and Roopa for the correct identification of Ayurvedic drugs (Pharmacognosy)
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Last updated on March 2nd, 2021 at 06:14 am